Understand MicroLED Display Technology | PDF | PPT | Seminar Report

This seminar report gives a brief introduction to MicroLED also known as micro-LED, mLED or µLED, which is the latest self-emitting display technology similar to OLED. MicroLED has the potential to take on and outperform OLED, but it won’t fully displace OLED and LCD. Here we discuss the basic structure, differences with OLED and LCD, major production methods for micro-LEDs. What are the major challenges? Advantages and Disadvantages, Application, and the Future of MicroLED. 

What is a MicroLED?

MicroLED displays comprise several microscopic LEDs, which self-illuminate per display pixel - just like an OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) panel would, only MicroLED uses the inorganic material. 
microled definition seminar report
MicroLED features a miniature length of less than 100 µm. Via mass transfer technology µm–level tri-color RGB MicroLEDs are moved onto a substrate, creating the MicroLED display in various sizes.

Development History of MicroLED

MicroLED technology was invented in 2000 by professors Hongxing Jiang and Jingyu Lin of Texas Tech University. Since 2010, manufacturers and researchers have been aggressively developing micro-LED display technology through integration and Research and Development. In 2012 Sony demonstrated the first microLED TV (55 inches, Full-HD) which they called Crystal-LED but it was never been commercialized. Then again in 2016, Sony unveiled its large-area outdoor micro-LED displays which Sony calls Canvas Display or CLEDIS (Crystal LED Integrated Structure) system. Most currently, in January 2018, Samsung launched the first consumer TV based on microLED technology called "The Wall, 146-inch, 8K UHD (7680 by 4320 pixels) display. In March 2018, Apple announced that it is designing and manufacturing prototype microLED screens dedicated to the Apple Watch.

LCD vs OLED vs MicroLED

LED displays are actually LCD displays that use LED as backlighting units - which are always on with a liquid-crystal layer that is used to create the actual image (i.e. block the light where needed). In comparison to an LCD display, a microLED is much simpler, as the LEDs themselves emit the light and can be individually controlled. 
OLEDs use tiny sub-pixels made from organic emissive materials. Micro-LEDs are somewhat similar - but with an inorganic LED structure. Compared to OLEDs, Micro-LEDs promise to be much more efficient and bright, more durable (higher lifetime) and with a higher color gamut. 

Manufacturing Challenges MicroLEd Display 

  • LED Technology (epitaxy, chips)
  • Massively Parallel and High Accuracy Pick and Place Technology
  • Light extraction and beam shaping
  • Color Conversion
  • Backplane Hybridization
  • Defect Management and Testing
  • Supply Chain

Major Advantages of MicroLED

  • Low power consumption.
  • Perfect black + high brightness = High Dynamic Range (contrast).
  • Wide color gamut.
  • Long lifetime, environmental stability.
  • High Resolution/Pixel density.
  • Fast refresh rates.
  • Wide viewing angles.
  • Curved/flexible backplanes.
  • Integration of sensors within the display front-plane.

Major Disadvantages of MicroLED

µLED will remain too expensive & difficult to manufacture for high volume consumer applications.
Though this is just a single disadvantage, it extends to more problems gradually.
Manufacturing companies will be reluctant to invest in expensive facilities and machinery that are required to make these sorts of panels.

Download the seminar report to understand more about the manufacturing methods, challenges, and possible solutions in making MicroLED more feasible. Also, go through the PDF reports and research papers to study the performance, latest design approaches like with Quantum Dot Display and various applications. The buzz is that it will replace or kill the OLEDs. Though it has the potential to overcome the OLED and LCD with so much complexity and challenges, it is tough to beat OLED's dominance, not for at least the next 2-3 years.